The coffee plant
The coffee is a plant of Rubiacee family, has a smooth trunk which varies from 5 to 10 cm diameter, long thin branches with spearheaded leaves and small five-petals flowers with limited life, up to 3 days maximum.
The coffee plant bear fruits after three, four years life, on average it’s substituted after twelve months.
The word coffee recalls unmistakably the brown colour, nobody probably thinks that in nature the coffee bean is just the green seed contained in a red cherry of an evergreen plant with beautiful very fragrant white flowers. The plantations when in bloom send out a heady perfume which reminds jasmine.
The fruit is similar to a cherry and inside the soft pulp is contained two seeds covered by a membrane called “parchment” and by a pellicle. All'interno del frutto ci sono due piccoli semi ovali, allungati, con un lato curvo e uno piatto solcato da una fenditura.
During toasting, coffee bean decreases weight as a result of moisture loss, the sugars are caramelized and it changes color becoming brown.
Roasting gives different colors to the coffee bean.
At the end of the decanting phase, the coffee must pass an organoleptic, visual, olfactory, taste test that demonstrates compliance with the UNI EN ISO 9001: 08 certification. Basic color is "monk's tunic" brown. Coffee is the most drunk drink in the world after the water.
COFFEE'S DRUPE STRUCTURE
During the development phase the drupa changes color from the initial green to the vivid red when its aging process is completed.
ARABICA / ROBUSTA
Two are the coffee sorts most cultivated : the "Coffea Arabica", commonly called "Arabica" and the "Coffea Canephora" known as "Robusta".
"Arabica", which provides ¾ of product in the world, is a rather fragile plant, from 3 to 5 meters tall, is farmed from 900 to 2.000 meters altitude, with temperatures that varies from 15 to 24 C degrees.
Aromatic and scented coffee, delicate and soft, almost sweet but at the same time a little acidic.
"Robusta" is a resistant plant, you find it in a lower range of altitude between 200 and 600 meters, reaches 13 meters, even if in the plantations, for convenience, doesn’t reaches 3 meters and prefers higher and more constant temperatures between 24 and 29 C degrees.
Coffee with a decided and rich taste, with intense and persistent aroma, full bodied and "chocolate" taste.