The Coffee Plant
The coffee is a plant within the Rubiaceae family, has a smooth trunk that varies from 5 to 10 cm in diameter, long thin branches with lanceolate leaves and small flowers with five petals that have a limited life, at most 3 days. The coffee plant gives fruit after three, four years of life and, on average, is replaced after twelve years.
The word coffee unambiguously evokes the color brown, nobody probably imagines that, in nature, the grain is nothing more than the green seed contained in a red cherry of an evergreen plant, with fragrant white flowers that give off an intoxicating scent reminiscent of jasmine.
The fruit is similar to a cherry and inside the soft pulp it contains two seeds covered by a membrane called “pergamino” and a film. Inside the fruit there are two small oval seeds, elongated, with a curved side and a flat grooved by a slit.
During the roasting phase the grain decreases in weight following the loss of moisture, the sugar gets caramelized and the grain changes color becomes brown. Roasting gives the bean different colors.
At the end of the decanting phase, the coffee must pass an organoleptic, visual, olfactory, gustatory test, demonstrating compliance with the UNI EN ISO 9001:08 certification. The basic color is the monk’s cassock. Coffee is the most drunk drink in the world after water.
STRUCTURE OF A COFFEE DRUPE
During the development phase the drupe changes color from initial green to vivid red once its maturation process is completed.
ARABICA / ROBUSTA
The most cultivated coffee species are two: the Coffea Arabica, commonly Arabica and the Coffea Canephora known as Robusta.